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Newspaper Extracts - Thoralby 


Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 25th February, 1860



REMARKABLY GOOD RUN WITH THE WENSLEYDALE HARRIERS. - On Saturday, the 18th inst., these hounds met at Freeholder's Wood. No sooner were the dogs "cast in" than old Freeman and Rector (staunch old counsellors, never known to give opinion but with certainty) gravely undertook to peruse the case, and challenge in "single notes;" then general chorus confined the report, whilst the old huntsman ... emerged from the north corner of the wood, and went off at rattling pace right on to Carperby where she baffled the brave little fellows and all was lost. ... At last she had the temerity to swim the river Yore, near to Mr. Wray's, East Holme, when she landed safe on terra firma. She then bent her course past Mr. James Binks's far house [West Holme], ...she crossed the cut in Bishopdale beck, then on to the other beck called Walden beck, near to the confluence of these two streams. ... she was seen by a lad, who was spreading manure in a field near Edgely ... She went out on top of the moor, and then came in for West Burton ... and the dogs killed her. ...

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 24th March, 1860



A PROFITABLE COW. - Mr. W. Harrow, of Skeeby Mill, has a cow which has produced eleven calves in seven years while in his possession, and they have all been healthy and strong. The cow was bought by Mr. George Ryder, of Thoralby, in the summer of 1853, and calved the first twins on the 10th September the same year.


... On the 15th inst., at Thoralby, aged 24, Mary Rider, daughter of Mrs. Elizabeth Rider.

Illustrated London News - 28th April, 1860


THE DRAWING FOR THE LONDON ART-UNION took place on Tuesday and the chief prizeholders were the following: - ... Miss A. Dunn, Thoralby, ... entitled to select a work of art of the value of £100.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 28th July, 1860



On Tuesday the 10th inst., Mr. John Metcalfe, formerly of Thoralby, Wensleydale, passed the necessary examination, and was admitted a licentiate of the Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons, Glasgow.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 8th September, 1860



... On the 23rd ult., at Thoralby, aged 76, Mr. Jeffrey Heseltine, farmer.

Yorkshire Gazette  - 27th Ocotber, 1860






I, THE Undersigned, JAMES HUNTON, Auditor of the above-named District, do hereby give Notice, that I have appointed the Audit of the Accounts of the Bainbridge Union and Incorporation, and of the Parishes therein contained (mentioned at the foot of this Notice), for the Half-Year ended the 29th of September, 1860, to commence on THURSDAY, the 8th Day of NOVEMBER, Next, at TEN o'Clock in the TOWN'S ROOM, in Askrigg, in the said Union and Incorporation, when and where all Persons who by Law are bound to account at such Audit are required to attend, and o submit all Books, Documents, Bills, and Vouchers, containing or relating to the Accounts or to Moneys assessed for, and applicable to, the Relief of the Poor.

   Dated the 24th Day of October, 1860.

               (Signed)                 JAMES HUNTON,

                                                                 District Auditor.

Parishes comprised in the above-named Union and


Askrigg                                                                                                     Hawes

Aysgarth                                                                                                  High Abbotside

Bainbridge                                                                                               Low Abbotside

Burton-cum-Walden or                                                                         Thoralby

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 2nd February, 1861



FOX HUNT - On Saturday, the 26th ult., the Wensleydale Harriers had a bag fox turned down before them, which was set at liberty a little east of Bainbridge. ... There was a good field of horse and foot ...

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 26th February, 1861



On Wednesday, the 6th inst., the choir of the parish church held a friendly tea drinking in a cottage contiguous to the Yore Mills, kindly lent by Captain Other. The decorations consisted of evergreens, flowers, &c., suspended very gracefully round the room, which was graced also by several ladies who feel a deep interest in singing. The ladies the tea tables seemed to anticipate every want and wish. The tea was of a superb description; so were the edibles, for the tables groaned as it were under the feast of plenty. Good feeling and hilarity went hand in hand, and every eye seemed to sparkle with delight. Few choirs have made better progress than this, and credit is due both to master and those taught for their assiduity. All seemed to enjoy the evening with zest which such a friendly meeting was so well calculated to inspire. - Communicated

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 2nd March, 1861



To be DISPOSED OF, the STOCK-IN-TRADE and BUSINESS carried on at Thoralby by Mr.F[rancis] Heseltine, lately deceased. Apply personally or otherwise to Mr. JOHN HESELTINE, Hawes, Yorkshire; or to Mr. WM. ROBINSON, Riddings, near Thoralby.

[Francis Heseltine can be seen in the 1851 census for Thoralby, age 30, occupation: Master Boot & Shoe Maker, Employing 1 Man, 1 Boy.]



Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 2nd March, 1861





The following Subscriptions have been made at the above-named places to give Mr. Oxlade to obtain an early decision in the case of Appeal - "Are the North Eastern Company Common Carriers of Coal?"

...                                      £   s.   d.   

Mr. T. Metcalfe              0    0   6



Mr. M. Wllis                    0    0  6



Mr. T. Hammond          0    1   0


Two large railway companies were trying to amalgamate, thus reducing competition and giving them a monopoly over the price of transporting coal. This would enable them to sell coal at a higher price at local railway stations, because of the reduced competition to sell coal. In March 1861 there were three names from Thoralby among those who opposed this amalgamation and subscribed to a fund to fight against this in Parliament. By June 1862 the number of Thoralby people subscribing to the fund had risen to fourteen. (See 14th June 1862 entry below).

Yorkshire Gazette - 6th July, 1861




The court-house at Northallerton was opened at eleven o’clock on Tuesday morning last, when the Midsummer Quarter Sessions commenced. …




Mr. J.J. Rigg, of Ruswarp, gentleman.

Mr. Charles Bryan, of Whirby, jet manufacturer.

Mr. James Cole, of Skelton, yeoman.

Mr. John Dixon, of Skelton, merchant.

Mr. T. Hobkirk, jun., of Whitby, ship-builder.

Mr. John Hogg, of Lazenby Wilton, land agent.

Mr. Robert Hebden, of Busk, Bainbridge, yeoman.

Mr. John Knaggs, of Lazenby, innkeeper.

Mr. R. Middleton, of Hawsker-cum-Stainsacre, farmer.

Mr. Wm. Malthousw of East Coatham, shipowner.

Mr. J.B. Nicholson of Whitby, ship chandler.

Mr. Richard Parke, of Ruswarp, gentleman.

Mr. A. robinson, of Redcar, druggist.

Mr. F. Rider, of Thoralby, farmer.

Mr. John Small. Of Guisbrough, gentleman.

Mr. John Sykes, of Askrigg, grocer.

Mr. John Stockdale, of Worton, Bainbridge, gentleman.

Mr. Thomas Turnbull, jun., of Hawkser, ship-builder.

Mr. H.W. Thomas, of Hutton, Lowcross, gentleman.

Mr. Thomas Wright, of Ruswarp, shipowner.

Mr. Matthew Webster, of Askrigg, yeoman.

[Mr Francis Rider can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

Leeds Mercury - 10th August, 1861


THORALBY INCLOSURE. - The Inclosure Commissioners for England and Wales hereby give NOTICE, THAT A meeting of the Persons Interested by HECKBERRY BRAE or BARKER HIGH PASTURE and BARKER LOW PASTURE, situate in the Township of Thoralby, in the parish of Aysgarth, in the county of York, will be held on the Sixth day of September next, at the hour of eleven in the forenoon, at the Loyal Dales Volunteer Inn, in the said township, for the purpose of appointing a Valuer in the matter of the inclosure of the said lands, under the provisions of "The Acts for the Inclosure, Exchange, and Improvement of Land."

And they further give Notice, that a majority in number, and in respect of interest of such persons, may at the meeting, resolve upon instructions to the Valuor, not inconsistent with the terms and conditions of the provisional order made by them in the matter of the said inclosure.

Witness my hand, this 6th day of August, in the year of our Lord, 1861. 

E. TATTERSHALL, by Order of the Board.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 19th October, 1861



... On the 8th  inst., at Thoralby, aged 66, Mrs. Ellen Thwaites.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 28th December, 1861



£, 2000, £1,000, and several other sums ready to be advanced on approved Mortgage securities, at moderate rates of interest. Apply to Mr. SADDLER, Solicitor, Thoralby, via Bedale.

York Herald - 15th February, 1862



This Persons of whom the Company or Partnership consists. ...

John Nicholson, Thoralby, Draper, &c.

[John Nicholson can be viewed in the 1861 census returns for Thoralby].

Westmorland Gazette  - 5th April, 1862



At the Parish Church Dent, on the 29th ult., by the Rev. R. Sedgwick, B.A., Mr. Matthew Lambert Taylor, of Thoralby, to Miss Emma Allen, of Deepdale, in Dent.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 3rd May, 1862



NATIONAL SCHOOL. The following is a summary of the Inspector's report of this school: - "The arithmetic, dictation, and composition are satisfactory. The writing is fair. The reading needs more distinctness. The scholars have been taught to understand their lessons. Great pains have been taken with their needlework.  More reading books are wanted." We are happy to add, that this school is conducted in every way in a very satisfactory manner. The present master, Mr. Sunter, seems to have his heart and energies in the work before him, and takes uncommon pains to implant solid mental culture in the minds of his pupils. The pupils, naturally intelligent and industrious, respond to well-directed efforts of their teacher, and thus considerable proficiency is attained. The ladies, who kindly give their services to instruct in needlework are - Miss Chapman, Thornton Rust; Miss Alice Willis, Aysgarth, the Misses Sadler [Charlotte Amelia, Jane and Mary Ann], and Miss Chapman [Elizabeth], of Thoralby, and Miss Pearson, Yore Mill.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 14th June, 1862


THE COAL MONOPOLY. Subscriptions collected by Mr. W.H. Milner, and Mr. W. Heseltine, Riddings, near Thoralby to oppose the North Eastern and Carlisle Railway Amalgamation Bill, in the House of Lord's Committee.

...                                                                     £   s.   d.   

John Whaley, Thoralby                              0   2   6



William Heseltine, Riddings                     0  1   0                              



Mrs. E. Rider, Thoralby                              0  1   0            

John Sarginson, Thoralby                         0  0   6

James Thwaites, sen., Thoralby               0  1   0

Miss Dunn, Thoralby                                  0   2  6                        

James Fawcett, Thoralby                          0   0  6

James Thwaites, jun., Thoralby               0   1   0

James Bushby, Thoralby                           0   1   0

Issac Metcalfe, Thoralby                           0   0  6

William Heseltine, Thoralby                    0   0   6                     



John Dinsdale, Thoralby                           0    1   0



Thomas Nicholson, Thoralby                  0    2   6



W.H. Milner, [Thoralby]                             0   1   0                   

Two large railway companies were trying to amalgamate, thus reducing competition and giving them a monopoly over the price of transporting coal. This would enable them to sell coal at a higher price at local railway stations, because of the reduced competition to sell coal. In March 1861 there were three names from Thoralby among those who opposed this amalgamation and subscribed to a fund to fight against this in Parliament. By June 1862 the number of Thoralby people subscribing to the fund had risen to fourteen. (See 2nd March 1862 entry above).

[Most of the above names can be seen in the 1861 census for Thoralby.]

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 28th June, 1862



... On the 19th inst., at Aysgarth church, the Rev. John Winn, M.A., Mr. Francis Barlow, farmer of Grassington, to Jane, third daughter of Mr. Joseph Lambert, of Thoralby.

Yorkshire Gazette - 5th July, 1862




This morning at eleven o’clock the justices of the North Riding assembled in the Court House of this borough, when the Midsummer Quarter Session of the Peace were formerly opened …




MARY M’DONALD, 26, pleaded guilty to having on the 10th of May, at Thoralby, stolen a cotton dress, the property of Mary Metcalfe. She admitted that last year she was convicted of felony at York. – To be imprisoned for nine months.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 11th October, 1862



LAMB SHOW. The Leyburn Annual Lamb Show took place near Mr. Cooper's, Commercial Inn, on Friday the 3rd inst.

... MARKET CLUB CHEESE, BUTTER AND VEGETABLE SHOW. This show was held in front of the Bolton Arms Inn, Leyburn, on Friday, the 3rd ins., when the following prizes were offered: CHEESE - For the best specimen of new milk cheese, 10s, Jas. Thwaite, Thoralby; 2nd 6s., Edward Bolland, Swaledale; 3rd, 4s. Wm. Robinson. 9 entries. ...

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 11th October, 1862



SINGULAR OCCURRENCE. On the 30th ult., at 4 o'clock. p.m., Mr. Lodge's servant man, on opening the door of a cow house to take in cattle observed a bird flying about. The man closed the door and gave chase to the stranger, the poor harmless tenant of the byre. He soon captures the feathered prisoner without an injury, which proved to be a woodlark in most beautiful condition, which had made ingress through a small door fifteen inches square left open.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 27th December, 1862


LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT, 1858, 21st and 22nd Victoria, chap. 98 sec. 18 - In compliance with a requisition, duly signed, WE DO HEREBY GIVE NOTICE that there will be a PUBLIC MEETING of the Owners of Property and Ratepayers of the Township of THORALBY, in the North Riding of the County of York, on MONDAY, the 29th day of December, 1862, at Six p.m., at the House of Rowland Fawcett, Thoralby [Volunteer Inn] to take into consideration and resolve whether the Local Government Act, 1858, should be adopted or not for the said Township; and if adopted, to determine the number of members that shall constitute the Local Board for the Township

                                                                        JOHN FAWCETT,

                                              Churchwarden and Summoning Officer. 

Local Government Act 1858: The 1848 Act was replaced by the Local Government Act 1858 (21 & 22 Vict. c. 98). The act came into force in all existing local board of health districts on 1 September 1858. The act made some changes to the procedure for constituting a local board and gave them some additional powers. There was also a change in nomenclature: the authorities created by the 1858 act were simply entitled "local boards" and their areas as "local government districts".

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 10th January, 1863

LOCAL GOVERNMENT ACT, 1858, 21st and 22nd Victoria, chap. 98 sec. 18 - To the Right Honourable Sir George Grey, Bart., M.P., Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department. - I, the undersigned, Churchwarden for the Township of THORALBY, in the North Riding of the County of York, and Summoning Officer, do hereby give Notice that the Local Government Act, 1858, was, on the 29th day of December, 1862, was duly adopted by the Owners of Property and Ratepayers of the said Township of Thoralby at a Public Meeting then held in and for the said Township; and it was determined at the said meeting that the number of elective members to form the Local Board of the said Township shall be Four.

Dated this 7th day of January, 1863.-

                                          JOHN FAWCETT,

                                              Churchwarden for the said Township,

                                                              and Summoning Officer. 

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 22nd August, 1863



PROLIFIC POTATOES. - Mr. Matthew Willis of this village, blacksmith, took up in his garden the almost incredible number of 103 potatoes from one set.Of course all this number were not usable for the table, but a very great many of them were. The kind of potato is commonly known by the name lapstone kidney. - Cor.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 29th August, 1863




The first annual meeting of this society was held on Wednesday.  ...

Given by the Leyburn Market Club.

Specimen of new milk cheese, to consist of not less than 3 cwt., the produce of the dairy , £2, Mr. John Fawcett, Thoralby; second, £1, Mr. W. Robinson, Riddings, near, Thoralby; third, 10s. Mr. R. Lambert, Gammersgil. ...

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 10th October,1863



ALL kind of CLOGS made to order. Repairs neatly executed at Mr. THOMAS DIXON'S, THORALBY.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 14th November, 1863



... On the 3rd inst., at Rilston church, near Skipton-in-Craven, by the Rev. Mr. Berry, Mr. Anthony Storey, farmer, to Catherine, fifth daughter of the late Mr. John Calvert, corn merchant, Thoralby, Wensleydale. ...

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 28th November, 1863



THORALBY FEAST. - At Thoralby feast this year, first of all harriers came and "cast off" a little to the west of Newbiggin, near Thoralby, on Tuesday the 24th of November, according to annual custom. The "Quest" (in sporting phraseology) was most excellent, the hounds doubling and re-doubling their musical notes a sure sign that puss is not far off. The day's sport as regarded by the harriers was magnificent, five hares were killed, one was four times over Wasset Fell, from Bishopdale Lane, another was right over into Walden, where she was killed. These dogs ran remarkably well this season, and "Old Juggler" last season was the leading hound regularly, and this season he is oftener the leader than  any other. There was a splendid leg of mutton, of ten pounds weight to climb up a pole for, but the pole having been well greased, no one attempted to obtain the prize. The cock race made as much merriment as anything, the bird was a very large one. The "Sportsmen" performed their arduous duties admirably, and all (as far as we can hear) passed off in a quiet and amicable manner. Cor.

[For other references about Thoralby Feast see also 1st September, 1846 and 7th December, 1847].

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 26th December, 1863

LOST, from THORALBY, on FRIDAY, the 11th DECEMBER, a Small Cocker DOG; height, about 11 or 12 inches; colour, black, white on the breast, tan on the feet and part of the legs; had on a brass collar when lost. He answers to the name of Vic. Whoever will restore the same to the owner, Mr. THOMAS NICHOLSON, Post Office, Thoralby, will be rewarded for their trouble, and whoever detains the dog after this notice, will be prosecuted.

Perry's Bankrupt Gazette - 12th March, 1864


BANKRUPTS, - in the Country.

WARKER [HARKER] Ralph, [Mar.4] butcher, Askrigg, North Riding; sur. 18th Mar. 12 Cy-ct - Leyburn Reg. O.A. - Robinson. Solicitor J. Sadler, Thoralby.


[John Sadler can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

Yorkshire Gazette – 26th March, 1864


In the County Court of Yorkshire, holden at Leyburn.


RALPH HARKER, of Askrigg, in the North Riding of the County of York, Butcher, having been adjudged Bankrupt on the 4th Day of March, 1864, a Public Sitting for the said Bankrupt to pass his Last Examination, and make application for his Discharge, will be held at the said Court at Leyburn, on the 21st Day of APRIL, 1864, at Two o'Clock in the Afternoon precisely, the day last aforesaid being the day limited for the said Bankrupt to surrender.

The REGISTRAR of the Court is the official Assignee, and Mr. JOHN SADLER, of Thoralby, is the Solicitor acting in the Bankruptcy. 

                                                                                                                                                      H.T. ROBINSON, Registrar.

Manchester Courier and Lancashire General Advertiser - 2nd May, 1864



HAMMOND-HOLGATE. - April 25, at Mary's Church, Clitheroe, by the Rev. J.H. Anderton, Jeffrey, eldest son of Thomas Hammond, Esq., of Thoralby, Wensleydale, Yorkshire, to Ellen, youngest daughter of the late Stephen Holgate, Esq., of Clitheroe; also same time and place, Christopher, second son of the same Thomas Hammond, Esq, to Mary third daughter of the above late Stephen Holgate, Esq.

[Thomas Hammond can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

Yorkshire Gazette – 27th August, 1864






The second show of the above society since its amalgamation with the Leyburn, Barden, and East Witton association, took place at East Witton on Wednesday last, and the anticipation that had been formed that this is likely to become one of the most important in the North Riding of this county bids fair, judging of the past exhibitions, to be fully realised. The district in which the operations of this society are carried on is beautiful that is quite sufficient to attract visitors thither, and the two fields in the occupation of Mr. Wm. Croft and two occupied by Mr. Wm. Metcalfe, in which the show was held, are in a most picturesque situation. About £150 were offered in prizes, which is the largest sum yet given, and among the special prizes were two by the members of Mr. Bruere’s hunt, and others by the Leyburn Market club. The show included not merely the usual array of stock, but other agricultural produce, consisting of cheese, for which the vale of Wensley is justly celebrated, butter, turnips, potatoes, and onions. In the article of cheese a novelty was exhibited by Mr. R. Frank, of Breekenbrough, his chesses, which are conical shape from the fact of being made in nets, not being pressed, and they are, we understand, much richer than those made in the ordinary way. The chees exhibited on this occasion was remarkably good, and it would be to the benefit of those who are in the habit of making cheeses if the prizes were increased, which will probably be the case another year. The entries of the associated society have been as follows:- … 


                          1863.                       1864.

Cattle ............................... 77 ..... 73

Sheep .............................  85 ... 102

Horses ........................... 191....193

Pigs ...............................      7 .... 10

Poultry ........ .................... 61 ... .61

Agricultural produce ..... 55 ..... 67


There is therefore a total increase this year of 35, the numbers in all departments except two being higher than those of 1863. ...


The weather was favourable, but very cold for the season, and the company were charmed by the performance of the Leyburn band…



Given by the Leyburn Market Club.


Specimen of new milk cheese, to consist of not less than one cwt., the produce of one dairy. £2, Mr. J. Heugill, Edgley; second, £1, Mr. R. Frank, Brecenborough; third, 10s. Mr. J. Thwaite, Thoralby. …

Whitby Gazette – 17th June, 1865



The following Gentlemen constitute Mr. F. A. Milbank's Committee, with power to add to their number:- ...


Leonard Jaques, esq, Warnford-cottage, Thoralby

W.H. Milner, esq, Thoralby 

[Henry Milner can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby, and Leonard Jaques can be viewed in the 1871 census for Thoralby].

Yorkshire Gazette – 26th August, 1865





At the FOX AND HOUNDS INN, in West Burton, in the Parish of Aisgarth, in the North Riding of the County of York, on WEDNESDAY, the 6th Day of SEPTEMBER, at the Hour of THREE in the Afternoon precisely, subject to Conditions to be then read, 

ALL that most desirable FREEHOLD DAIRY FARM, or ESTATE, called "Spickles," near West Burton aforesaid, and situate in the several Townships of Thoralby, Newbiggin, and Aisgarth, in the said Parish, consisting of 31A. 3R. 16P. of Meadow, Pasture, and Arable LAND.

Mr. Thomas Coates, the Tenant, will show the Estate, and Printed Particulars may be had of W.M. GIBSON, Esq., No. 64, Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, at the place of Sale, at the principal Hotels and Inns in the Neighbourhood, of the Auctioneer at Askrigg, and at the Office of Mr. HAMMOND, Solicitor, West Burton, Bedale, Yorkshire, where a Plan of the Estate may be seen.

[Thomas Coates can be viewed at Spickles Farm, in the 1861 census for Thoralby, and John Fawcett can be viewed at Spickles Farm, in the 1871 census for Thoralby].

Derbyshire Advertiser and Journal – 30th November, 1865





The Commencing from and out of Railway No.2, at the termination of that Railway, passing thence through or into the following Parishes, Townships, and places, or some of them, that is to say: Buckden and Arncliffe, in the said West Riding; and Bishopdale, Thoralby, Aysgarth, Carperby, Carperby-cum-Thoresby, Wensley, Newbiggin, Burton, West Burton, and Burton-cum-Walden, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, and terminating in the said Township of Carperby-cum-Thoreseby, in the said Parish of Aysgarth, in a pasture field known as Swale field, belonging to Lord Bolton, and in the occupation of Henry James King.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 24th March, 1866



... HAMMOND. - On the 11th inst., at Thoralby, aged 61, Mr. Thomas Hammond.

[Thomas Hammond, occupation, farmer, can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

Leeds Mercury – 1st August, 1866


Domestic Servants Wanted.

WANTED immediately, a middle-aged person to do Household work for two and to Teach in a Girls's School a plain English Education. Apply Mr. Milner, Thoralby, Bedale, Yorkshire.

[Henry Milneroccupation, teacher at day school, can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

York Herald  - 13th October, 1866



The annual show of cheese, butter, and roots in connection with this club took place at Leyburn, yesterday (Friday) week. Following the show an excellent dinner was given at the Bolton Arms Hotel, where Capt. Other occupied the chair, and the after proceedings included speeches delivered in the proposition of a variety of toasts. The award of 


CHEESE AND BUTTER.  For the best specimen of milk cheese (to consist of not less than one cwt.), the produce of one dairy, £2, J.Hengill, Edgley; second, £1, R. Frank, Breckonborough [Brecon Bar?], J. Thwaite, Thoralby.

[James Thwaite, snr., occupation, farmer, can be seen on the 1861 census for Thoralby].


York Herald – 3rd November, 1866






At Leyburn Town Hall, yesterday week, before Lord Bolton, the Rev. E. Wyvill, S. Stranbenzee, Esq., and Colonel Wade Francis Scott, of Thoralby, charged Issac Metcalfe, of the same place, with assaulting him on the 4th ult. Fined 5s and costs. Mr. Hammond was for the complainant, and Mr. Teal for the defendant. Thomas Clark, of Horse House, Coverdale, was charged with driving two bullocks in Coverham-lane without license. Fined 1s. 6d. each bullock.


Several other unimportant cases were also unheard.

York Herald – 8th December, 1866




TO be SOLD by AUCTION, on FRIDAY, the 21st Day of December, 1866, at the BOLTON ARMS, Leyburn, near Bedale, at ELEVEN for TWELVE o’Clock at Noon, Mr. RICHARD HOLMES, Auctioneer, all that Valuable FREEHOLD ESTATE, known as the “GALE ING” Estate, with the Farm-House and Farm-Buildings thereon, adjoining Thornton Moor, near Aysgarth, in the North Riding of the County of York, and containing 421 Acres 32 Perches, or thereabouts, and now in the occupation of Mr. William Thompson, as Tenant, under a Lease for Ten Years, dated the 6th April, 1862, at the low rent of £170 per Annum, the tenant paying in addition £5 per annum towards the Draining of the Estate, and the Timber, Minerals, and the Right of Shooting being also Reserved from the Lease.


This estate consists of excellent Grazing Land, and, having been for many years in the hands of farmers, it is well drained and in good condition. It affords capital Grouse Shooting, and a Trout Stream runs through it. It is partly bounded by Two Public Roads, one from the Village of Thoralby, and the other from the Village of Aysgarth. From the great and increasing demand for Grazing Land, and the contiguity of this Estate to the properties of many large and wealthy land owners, it offers to the capitalist a safe and desirable investment.


The Wood upon the Farm will be Sold at a Valuation. The Tenant will Show the Farm [John Metcalfe]. Further Particulars, and Conditions of Sale, may be obtained upon application to the Auctioneer; or to Messrs. J. and R.S. WATSON, Solicitors, 101, Pilgrim Street, Newcastle-upon-Tyne.


York Herald – 5th January, 1867






At the Town-hall, Leyburn, before Lord Bolton, Hon., W. H. Powlett, and H. Van Stranbenzee, Esq., on Friday week, Thomas Morrison, of Wakefield, was charged by J.F. Dent, Esq., agent to Lord Bolton, with cutting down some holly trees, on the farm in the occupation of Mr. R. Kirk, Gale Bank, near Wensley, on the 19th ult. The defendant said he supplied several parties at Wakefield at Christmas time with holly. He was fined 1s. and 1s. damages and costs. – Superintendent Womsley charged W. Robinson, labourer of Bellerby, with having a horse grazing in the lane. The defendant having been twice convicted of the same offence, was fined 5s., or in default of payment seven days to the House of Correction. Francis Scott, labourer, Thoralby, was charged by a police officer stationed at West Burton with taking salmon. Fined £1 and costs, and 10s. for having the salmon in his possession, or 21 days. – The police officer stationed at Grinton charged a man named Reynoldson, who kept a lodging-house at Reeth, in Swaledale, with two others, viz. Johnson and Hall with being poachers. On searching them he found on Reynoldson a ferret and two rabbits, and on Johnson six nets, Hall had a lurcher dog. Reynoldson was fined £1 1s. and costs, or one month to hard labour. The other two had absconded. The ferrets and nets were ordered to be destroyed. 

Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer – 2nd March, 1867




in the County of York.

TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, by Mr RICHARD HOLMES, at the house of Mr Joseph Lambert, Innkeeper [George Inn], in Thoralby, in the County of York, on WEDNESDAY the 6th day of March next, at seven o'clock in the evening, subject to such conditions as will be then produced and read,

ALL that Well and Substantially Built WATER CORN MILL, situate at Thoralby aforesaid, and commonly called "Thoralby Mill," with the drying kilns, gear and machinery therein, and the pieces or parcels of land, weirs, dams, and mill-race, together with the outbuildings and appurtenances thereto adjoining and belonging. And also all that CLOSE, Piece, or Parcel of PASTURE LAND near thereto, and separated therefrom by the raid from Thoralby to Kettlewell, and known by the name of "Batts," and containing by admeasurement half-an-acre or thereabouts, be the same more or less.

The mill and premises are in good repair and condition, well situated, and abundantly supplied with water.

The business has long been established, an is very lucrative.

Mr John Sarginson, the tenant, will show the property and further particulars may be had on application at the offices of 

                  Messrs ROBINSON & CHAPMAN, Solicitors, Leyburn.

            Leyburn, 8th February, 1867. and

[Joseph Lambert and  John Sarginson can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

During the 1820s-1840s the mill was owned and run by George Calvert (1773-1840). John Sayer (1814-1901), of Newbiggin bought the mill in 1867 and he and his family ran the business until its closure in 1919.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  - 9th March, 1867



PRESENTATION OF A PORTRAIT TO DR. WRAY. ... It may interest our readers to know that Mrs. Fraser, "The Heroine of Cawnpore," was Ann Fawcett, eldest daughter of Octavious, who was the eight son of George Wray, of ThoralbyTownhead [now known as The Old Hall, Thoralby], and that she lived for some years in Richmond. Captain Mowbray Thompson, one of the only two survivors of the garrison, in his "Story of Cawnpore," (chap. 11.) says of this lady "that she deserves rather to be commemorated for her virtues than her sufferings. During the horrors of the siege she won the admiration of all our party by her indefatigable attention to the wounded. Neither danger nor fatigue seemed to have power to suspend her ministry of mercy. Even on the fatal morning of embarkation, in the thickest of the deadly vollies poured upon us from the banks, she appeared indifferent to danger; while with perfect equanimity and imperturbed fortitude she was entirely occupied in the attempt to sooth and relive the agonized sufferers around her, whose wounds scarecely made their condition worse than her own. Mr. Fraser was one of the party recaptured from the boats ..." 

Aysgarth Church and the “Heroine of Cawnpore”, for further details go to links and pip's patch.

"Memorials at Aysgarth church reveal many connections with India, including the “Heroine of Cawnpore” – Ann Fraser who, before her marriage, was Ann Fawcet Wray. Also remembered among the Wray Memorials in the Lady Chapel of that church (see below) is her uncle, Lieutenant Thomas Fawcet Wray, who was killed during the storming of Badajoz in Spain in 1812, 17 years before she was born. ...

Mrs Fraser is reported to have died from fever before the terrific butchery that immediately preceded General Havelock’s recapture of Cawnpore. ...

Lt. Wray’s youngest brother, Octavius (i.e.the eighth son) would have been about 19-years-old, by then and may have started his medical training. By mid-1831 he was in India as a surgeon with the Bengal European Regiment and his daughter, Ann, was eighteen-months old. He died of a fever in Agra in 1836 leaving five children, the youngest, Thomas Charge Wray, being just two-years-old."  ... [Aysgarth Church and the “Heroine of Cawnpore” - Pip's Patch]


Octvious's, widow, Sarah, was only 35 years old, when her husband died, and by the time of the 1841 census the family had returned to England. Daughter, Ann Fawcett Wray, must have returned to India, as Ann married Lt. George William Fraser in November, 1850, at Benares, West Bengal, India, aged 20. Lt. George William Fraser, survived the massacre, marrying twice more and became a General, dying in England in 1898, aged 71.

"The Siege of Cawnpore was a key episode in the Indian rebellion of 1857. The besieged Company forces and civilians in Cawnpore (now Kanpur) were unprepared for an extended siege and surrendered to rebel forces under Nana Sahib, in return for a safe passage to Allahabad. However, their evacuation from Cawnpore turned into a massacre, and most of the men were killed. As an East India Company rescue force from Allahabad approached Cawnpore, 120 British women and children captured by the Sepoy forces were killed in what came to be known as the Bibighar Massacre, their remains being thrown down a nearby well in an attempt to hide the evidence. Following the recapture of Cawnpore and the discovery of the massacre, the angry Company forces engaged in widespread retaliation against captured rebel soldiers and local civilians. The murders greatly embittered the British rank-and-file against the Sepoy rebels and inspired the war cry "Remember Cawnpore!"" [Wikipedia]


























Yorkshire Post – 5th April, 1867



At the IMPORTANT SALE OF VALUABLE FREEHOLD AND LEASEHOLD PROPERTY in the Townships of THORALBY, and AYSGARTH,  in the North Riding of Yorkshire.

TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, by Mr GEORGE TERRY, on WEDNESDAY the 17th day of April, 1867, at the George Inn, in Thoralby aforesaid, at Seven o'clock in the evening (subject to such conditions as will be then read), and in the following or such other lots as may be agreed upon at the time of sale: - 

Lot 1. ALL that MESSUAGE or DWELLING HOUSE [Rose Cottage], with the Barns, Stables, Outbuildings, Garden, Garth, and CLOSE OF LAND, situate in the village of Thoralby aforesaid, and containing by admeasurement 1A. 2R. 33P., be the same more or less, and numbered respectively 205, 206,207, and 208, on the Tithe Commutation Plan for the said township of Thoralby.

Lot 2. All those CLOSES or PARCELS OF LAND called Lopsey Beck Close or Lopsey Kell Foot, Corn Close or Watergalls, Little Roods or Ploughing Field, containing by admeasurement 9A. 0R. 0P., be the same more or less, and numbered respectively 360, 359, 380, and 381 on the said Tithe Commutation Plan.

Lot 3. All those CLOSES or PARCELS OF LAND called Roods, or High Roods Skellicks Brea and Plantation, New Close, Skellicks and Allotments, containing by admeasurement 12A. 2R. 4P., be the same more or less, and numbered respectively on the said plan 378, 376, 375, 377, 372, and 392. 

Lot 4. All that ALLOTMENT called Side Allotment, containing by admeasurement 12A. 0R. 13P., be the same more or less, and numbered 563 on the said plan.

Lot 5. Another Side ALLOTMENT, containing by admeasurement 8A. 3R. 7P., be the same more or less, and numbered 525 on the said plan.


Lot 6. All that ALLOTMENT or Parcel of Land, containing by estimation 22A. 1R. 31P., more or less formerly forming part of Aysgarth Moor.

Lot 7. All that ALLOTMENT formerly forming part of Aysgarth Pasture, and containing by admeasurement 12A. 3R. 28P., more or less, and now in the occupation of James Heseltine, as tenant thereof.

The first six Lots are in the occupation of Mr John Duckett, who will show the same, and additional information may be had on application at the offices of 

         Messrs ROBINSON & CHAPMAN, Solicitors, Leyburn.

  Leyburn, March, 1867.

[John Duckitt can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

Sheffield Independent – 26th April, 1867


MARRIAGE OF MISS RIDER. - ​Unusual excitement prevailed at Ecclesfield yesterday morning, the occasion being the marriage of Miss Sarah Amelia Rider, youngest daughter of the late George Rider, Esq. of Greno House, near Ecclesfiled, to Thomas Francis Rider Hammond, Esq., solicitor, West Burton, Wensleydale, Yorkshire. The party arrived in four carriages, each drawn by two grey horse, adorned with wedding favours. The bridesmaids were Miss Ellen Rider, sister of the bride, and Miss Wingfield. The groomsmen were Robert Sadler, Esq., of Thoralby and John Wingfield, Jun., Esq., of Butterthwaite Hall, and amongst the company present were the Missies Rider, Broomhall Park, Jno. Hammond Esq., of West Burton, and Mrs. Hammond; Barnardd P. Broomhead, Esq., and Mrs Broomhead; Henry Wingfeld, Esq., and Jno. Rider., Esq., of Middleton Green. The dress of the bride consisted of a handsome robe of white rep silk, with wreath of orange blossom, and lace veil, and those of the bridesmaids of white grenadine trimmed with blue. The bride was given away by her brother-in-law, Charles Macnally, Esq., of Durham, and the service was preformed by the Rev. Alfred Gatty, D.D., vicar of Ecclesfield and subdean of York. A wedding march was played by Mr. Hedgeman, organist of the church, and bells rang out a merry peal in honour of the event. After partaking of the wedding breakfast at Miss Rider's, Broomhal Park, the bride and bridegroom will spend the honeymoon in Scotland.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 29th June, 1867



WESLEYAN SUNDAY SCHOOL. On Sunday, June 23rd. the anniversary in connection with the above school was held at Thoralby, [Now known as the Old Chapel House]. Sermons were preached to large congregations - in the afternoon by Rev. J.B. Dawson, of Middleham, and in the evening by Mr Longstaff, of Carlton. After each sermon a number of interesting pieces and dialogues were recited by the scholars, in a manner highly creditable both to themselves and the teachers. On Monday the annual festival was held. There was a procession of the children, who afterwards sat down, along with their teachers and friends, to an excellent tea. After tea a public meeting was held, over which Mr Green presided, when addresses were delivered on the benefits of accruing from Sunday schools by the Rev. J.R.J. Binns and other friends. 

At one time there were three chapels in Thoralby. The oldest chapel is the Old Wesleyan c. 1821 and built by the efforts of the Pickard family. The school room was a later addition. At Thoralby, a Primitive Methodist Society held a fort-nightly service from 1822, building a chapel in 1849 [now a farm building]. This chapel, was replaced by the building of a new one in 1889, West End Methodist Chapel. These two chapels have also closed and have both been converted into houses. [Now know as Old Chapel House and the Old Chapel.]

Images of all three chapels can be seen in Thoralby Postcards.]

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 17th August, 1867



FATAL ACCIDENT. - On Monday last an inquest was held at Fawcett's inn [Volunteer Inn], Thoralby, before Mr J.S. Walton, coroner, on the body of Mr William Heseltine, of Beddings [Riddings]. Deceased had been climbing over a wall last Saturday, and it is believed that the wall had fallen, for deceased fell forwards, and his head came into contact with some stones, causing concussion of the brain. He was picked up insensible, and died the same evening Verdict, "Accidental death." Deceased was in his 75th year.

[William Heseltine, occupation, farmer and cooper, can be seen in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

York Herald – 21st September, 1867




On Saturday last, at the Town Hall, Leyburn, before Lord Bolton, Alfred Parkinson, of Redmire, was charged with stealing a horse, value £18, the property of Mr. John Shields, of Redmire. It appeared that on or about the 17th of June last, Mr. Shields sent by Parkinson a horse to be depastured for the summer in a field in the occupation of Mr. Coates, of Thoralby [Thomas Coates, Spickles Farm]. On the 12th of August last. Parkinson went to Thoralby, and told Mr. Coates that Mr. Shields had sent him for a horse. Coates, believing the statement to be true, allowed Parkinson to take it away. The prisoner was next found dealing with the horse at West Witton. In the first instance he offered it in exchange to a dealer of the name of Preston, and afterwards sold it to Preston for £6 5s., and Preston in half an hour re-sold it to another dealer named Iveson for £7 5s. Parkinson decamped with the money, and was last week found in Lymm, in Cheshire, where Superintendent Walmsley took him into custody. The prisoner in defence had nothing to say beyond stealing it was all through drink; he had been drinking for 2 days, or he should never have thought of such a thing as taking the horse. The prisoner, who is a young man of good abilities and is respectably connected, was committed for trial at the next Quarter Sessions at Northallerton.

[Thomas Coates can be viewed at Spickles Farm in the 1861 census for Thoralby].

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 18th January, 1868




MR G. TERRY will SELL BY AUCTION, on Monday, the 27th JANUARY, 1868, at One o'clock in the Afternoon precisely, 50 Lots of TIMBER TREES, comprising Ash, Elm, and Sycamore, growing in the hedge-rows on the respective farms occupied by Mr John Sayer, Mr George Heseltine, and Joseph Yeoman, at Newbiggin, aforesaid.

The above Trees are chiefly of large dimension, close to good roads for getting away, and well worthy the attention of Wood Buyers.

Mr John Sayer, on application, will show the Lots, and further particulars may be had of Messrs J.and R. Fawcett, Thoralby.

[John Sayer, and George Heseltine can be seen in the 1861 census for Newbiggin, and Joseph Yeoman and Messrs J.and R. Fawcett, Thoralby, can be seen in the 1861 census for Thoralby.]

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 25th January, 1868



... HAMMOND. On the 17th inst., at Thoralby, Ellen [Varley], infant daughter of Mr Jeffrey Hammond. 

[Ellen was the infant daughter of Jeffrey and Ellen Hammond of Thoralby.]


Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 1st February, 1868



... SADDLER. - Jan. 20th, at Thoralby, John, son of the late Mr. Bywell Saddler, aged 22.

[John was the son of John Bywell and Jane Sadler of Thoralby.]

[John can be seen in the 1851 and 1861 census for Thoralby.]

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 7th March, 1868



LEGAL APPOINTMENT. - The Right Hon. Sir William Bovill, Knight, Lord Chief-Justice of Her Majesty's Court of Common Pleas at Westminster, has appointed Mr John Saddler, of Thoralby, in the county of York, to be one of the Perpetual Commissioners for taking the acknowledgements of deeds to be executed by married women for the West Riding of the county of York. 

[John Sadler, occupation, solicitor can be seen in the 1861 census for Thoralby.]

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 18th April, 1868



TEA FESTIVAL. On Good Friday afternoon the Primitive Methodists of Thoralby held their annual tea festival, when about 350 persons sat down to an excellent repast. After tea the chapel was crowded to excess by an attentive audience, which was addressed by the Rev. G. Stout, F. Rivers, Mr W. Scurrah, and Miss Ann Anakin. 

The Primitive Methodist Chapel was founded in 1849, when sixteen property owners, gave written consent “to the Primitive Methodist Connexion at Thoralby to erect a meeting house or chapel, undisturbed on the plat of ground where the poor houses formerly stood and to make use of the stones on the place for the same, adjoin the street near Mr. George Rider’s” [Now Viking House.] Thoralby Primitive Methodist Chapel, closed as a place of worship in 1832. [Now a farm building.]

The Primitive Methodists, were the first group of Methodists to meet in Thoralby, building one of the three chapels. At Thoralby, a Primitive Methodist Society held a fort-nightly service from 1822; and the Wesleyans started one in 1824, apparently on alternate Sundays. The oldest chapel is the Old Wesleyan c. 1821 and built by the efforts of the Pickard family. The school room was a later addition. This chapel, was replaced by the building of a new one in 1889, West End Methodist Chapel. These two chapels have also closed and have both been converted into houses. [Now know as Old Chapel House and the Old Chapel.]

[Images of all three chapels can be seen in Thoralby Postcards.]

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 7th November, 1868



THORALBY TOTAL ABSTINENCE SOCIETY. A public meeting was held in the Primitive Methodist Chapel, Thoralby, on Tuesday, the 27th ult. The chair was taken by Mr. James Dinsdale of Redmire, and the meeting was most earnestly and effectively addressed by Messrs. David Plews, of Redmire, and Ralph Horn and John Plews, of Castle Bolton.  At the close of the meeting sixteen names were added to the pledge book.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 17th April, 1869



BAINBRIDGE UNION WORKHOUSE. - The following guardians have been elected for different parishes in the above union: - Abbotside High, Mr. John Balderston and Mr. C. Moore, farmers; Abbotside Low, Mr. Clement Thompson, farmer; Askrigg, Mr. James Thwaite and Mr. George Winn; Aysgarth, Mr. William H. Tomlinson; Bainbridge, Me. George Chapman and Mr. William Metcalfe, farmers; Bishopdale, Mr. Richard Thwaite, farmer; Burton-cum-Walden, Mr. William Purkiss [Purchas?]; Carperby, Mr. John Willis, farmer; Hawes, Mr. R.C. Allen, and Mr.Ralph Metcalfe, farmer; Newbiggin, Mr. Phenix Sare [Felix Sayer], farmer; Thoralby, Mr. Thomas Sadler; Thornton Rust, Mr. John Chapman, jun. Mr. William Routh and Mr. Christopher Percival were elected overseers for the township of Bainbridge.

[Thomas Sadler, occupation, farmer, landowner can be seen in the 1871 census for Thoralby.]

York Herald – 20th February, 1869






The Poor-Law Board, under the authority of an Act passed last session, recently issued an order for the dissolution of the Bainbridge (Gilbert’s) Incorporation, which comprised the townships of High and Low Abbotside, Hawes, Bainbridge, Askrigg, Burton-cum-Walden, Thoralby, and Aysgarth, and they have subsequently issued another order, forming those townships, with the addition of the townships of Carperby, Thornton Rust, Bishopdale, and Newbiggin into a union under their control, to be called “Aysgarth Union.” The elections of the first guardians for the various townships were completed last week, and on Monday the new board met for the first time, at the Workhouse, Bainbridge, when the Poor-Law inspector of the district was present. Mr. Wm. Purchas, of West Burton, was elected chairman, and Mr. Geo. Winn, of Askrigg, vice-chairman, until the termination of the current year; and Mr. Geo. Winn, jun., solicitor, Askrigg was unanimously elected clerk to the guardians, Mr. T. Hammond, solicitor, of West Burton, who had offered himself for the office, having retired without contest.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 5th June, 1869



(Before the Hon. A.C.O. Powlett, chairman, Lieut.- Col. Wade, and the Rev. Jno. Winn.) - Superintendent Walmsey charged James Thwaite, of Thoralby, grocer, with having in his possession on the 27th ult. five weights, all of which were too light and unstamped. Thwaite, who did not appear, was fined 50s., and 12s. 6d. costs. ...

- Mr. Felix Sayer, waywarden, for the township of Newbiggin, was summoned by Supt. Walmsley for refusing to repair a certain portion of the highway, leading from West Burton to Thoralby, at a place called Goose Lane Ford. Mr. Sayer repudiated the liability of the township, and called a witness, who stated that he had known the road in question for up wards of thirty years, and that it and never been ​repaired by the township. The charge, therefore, was dismissed.

[James Thwaite, occupation, shopkeeper, grocer can be viewed in the 1871 census for Thoralby.

Felix Sayer, occupation, farmer, landowner can be viewed in the 1871 census for Newbiggin.

Goose Lane Ford can be viewed in Thoralby Postcards.]

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 19th June, 1869



.. LAMBERT. - June 11th, at West Burton, Mr. Joseph Lambert, late of Thoralby, innkeeper, aged 78.

[Joseph Lambert, The George Inn, occupation, innkeeper, shoemaker can be viewed in the 1861 census for Thoralby.]

Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer – 17th July, 1869



GOVERNESS WANTED, in a farm-house, to instruct five children (under 13). Must be able to impart a sound English education in all its branches - French, music, and needlework. Must be willing to make herself generally useful (nothing menial required). Good reference. Reply, stating age, salary, &c., to A.B., Post Office, Thoralby, Bedale.

Richmond & Ripon Chronicle  – 30th October, 1869



TO BE SOLD BY AUCTION, by MR. JOHN HARKER, on THURSDAY, NOVEMBER 4th, 1869, at the House of LEONARD HESELTINE, Innkeeper, Thoralby, at Six o'clock in the Evening, subject to such conditions as will be then read, in one Lot, all that Excellent CLOSE of LAND called "Tom Garth," situated at the west end of the Town of Thoralby containing 2 Acres, more or less.

The Tenant will show the any, and any further information may be had on application to the AUCTIONEER, at Richmond, or to 

                                                                                                               MR. SADLER, Solicitor, 


Richmond, October, 25th, 1869.

[Leonard Heseltine, The George Inn, occupation, blacksmith, innkeeper, can be viewed in the 1871 census for Thoralby.

Tom Garth field, is on the right hand side of the lane to Littleburn House, for its precise location see the 1840 Tithe Map for Thoralby.]

Brass Plaque, Memorial, Aysgarth Church and the “Heroine of Cawnpore”, courtesy of Pip's Patch - Penhill Benifice.

Ann Fawcett Wray (1829-1857), courtesy of Stephen Plowman.